HPV is causing a variety of benign, borderline and malignant disorders, with common anogenital signs. The association of various types of treatment is still the preferred method to eradicate HPV infection.
Informaţii generale şi recomandări Infecţia genitală cu papilomavirusuri umane HPV este cea mai frecventă boală virală cu transmitere sexuală, atât la femei cât şi la bărbaţi1.
This paper offers information about possible systemic treatments of HPV infection, based on the documentation from the PubMed databaseincluding immunomodulatory drugs, antiviral medications, therapeutic HPV vaccines and biological formula de vierme rotunde. Keywords HPV, HPV systemic treatment, therapeutic vaccines, systemic immunomodulators, systemic human papilloma virus biological drugs Rezumat Infecţia umană cu diferite genotipuri ale virusului papiloma uman HPV este una dintre cele mai frecvente infecţii virale cu transmitere sexuală.
HPV provoacă o varietate de afecţiuni benigne, precanceroase şi maligne, cu semne anogenitale comune. HPV necesită tratament sistemic antiviral, dar în prezent nu există un medicament antiviral sistemic aprobat împotriva infecţiilor cu HPV. Asocierea diferitelor tipuri de tratament este încă metoda preferată pentru eradicarea infecţiei cu HPV. Această lucrare oferă detalii despre posibilele tratamente sistemice ale infecţiei cu HPV, pe baza documentaţiei din baza de date PubMedinclusiv medicamente imunomodulatoare, medicamente antivirale, vaccinuri HPV terapeutice şi terapie biologică.
Cuvinte cheie HPV tratament sistemic HPV vaccinuri terapeutice imunomodulatoare sistemice medicamente antivirale sistemice Genital infections with human papillomaviruses Piccolo papilloma vescicaleamong the most common sexually transmitted diseases STDgenerate alarming signals in human health, due to the prevalence and dissemination, as well as to various pathologies induced mostly at the level of the genital tract 1.
The virus has tropism for feminine genital tract. Discussion At this moment, there is no routine effective therapy to treat lesions induced by HPV. HPVshr infection with various clinical forms at various levels requires an early diagnosis and proper treatment 5.
New systemic treatments in HPV infection
The treatment improves symptoms, especially regarding evolutive flares, lowering the possibility of infection by HPV and possibly through other possible STD associated 6. It is recommended that all clinical and subclinical susceptible lesions at the level human papilloma virus biological epithelium and mucous membranes be tested for HPV 7. The possibility of identifying the genotype is useful, especially for infections with Taur simptome, when the therapy must be prompt and targeted, and post-therapeutic follow-up must be done for long term in order to prevent the neoplastic transformation 8.
Taking into account the fact that many lesions with confirmed HPV etiology have a self-limiting evolution, it is recommended that before starting the treatment the patient should be kept under observation for several weeks, expecting the spontaneous healing 9. A multidisciplinary approach is required for optimal decision making, treatment planning, and post-treatment response assessment.
The therapy of the infections produced by HPV is local and systemic. Topical treatment removes lesions, but human papilloma virus biological absence of infection is not guaranteed The absence of a sterilizing therapy diminishes the effectiveness of evaluation and monitorization of the sexual partners, but their testing can identify ignored lesions HPV is ubiquitous, especially in the lower genital tract, which makes the pharmacological treatment to be considered as the therapy of choice The treatment with interferon and immunomodulating agents inosine did not bring the presumed results many human papilloma virus biological effects which limited the therapeutic doses Figure 1.
Antiviral polyamide in HPV human papilloma virus biological 18 Systemic antiviral treatment would be the treatment of choice, but at present there is no systemic antiviral drug approved for HPV This article details the progresses in the treatment of systemic infection with HPV, regardless of type, location and genotype Table 1.
HPV vaccines currently licensed in the United States of America 21 This paper provides up-to-date scientific data on the possible systemic treatments of human infections with HPV confirmed etiology.
Recurrences occur after all therapies. All topical treatments are associated with local skin reactions including itching, burning, erosions and pain.
A number of studies highlighted the role of HPV systemic treatment, from which the most prevalent are aromatic retinoids, interferon, inosine, while other studies have reported benefits after using hydroxicloroquine Antiviral medications like foscarnet, cidofovir and ribavirin were used as systemic HPV treatment with good results Figure 2. HPV by the numbers 30 A history of genital warts, a positive HPV test result, or abnormal cervical, vaginal, vulvar or anal cytology, all indicate a prior HPV infection, but not necessarily with the HPV types included in the vaccines.
Pe baza potenţialului oncogen tipurile genitale de HPV sunt împărţite în tipuri cu risc scăzut şi tipuri cu risc crescut.
The vaccination is still recommended in individuals within the recommended age range who have evidence of prior HPV infection, as it can still provide protection against infection with HPV vaccine types not already acquired. However, these patients human papilloma virus biological be advised that vaccination will have no therapeutic effect on preexisting HPV infection or in HPV-associated diseases, and the potential benefit of HPV vaccination is not as great human papilloma virus biological if they were vaccinated before their sexual debut 24, The therapeutic anti-HPV vaccines are supposed to induce cell-mediated immunity and to prevent the development of benign and malignant lesions induced by this virus.
Cell-mediated rather than humoral immune responses are important for the clearance of established infections. The HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins are essential for the onset and maintenance of malignancy; thus, they are unlikely to escape immune responses by mutation.
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They are also expressed constitutively and at high levels, and therefore represent near-ideal targets for the development of therapeutic vaccines against established HPV infections and lesions. Other proteins useful for targeting of early viral infections are E1 viral helicase and E2, which are expressed human papilloma virus biological higher levels than E6 and E7 at very early stages before viral genome integration.
An ideal therapeutic vaccine would target these proteins to induce strong tumor-specific T-cell type 1 and cytotoxic lymphocyte CTL responses able to kill infected and malignant cells The types of therapeutic vaccines, which are developed human papilloma virus biological evaluated at the moment, are vaccines with viral or bacterial vectors, vaccines based on dendritic cells and modified tumor cells, vaccines based on peptides, proteins or RNA replicons or DNA vaccines 27, Progress will likely come from clinical trials testing the treatment of low-grade lesions of the cervix, with the aim of accelerated and sustained resolution following either HPV immune response, or drug treatments as the stepping stone for wider therapeutic application The treatment is reserved for patients with visible warts.
The general treatment strategy is to eliminate as many of the visible human papilloma virus biological as possible until the host immune system can control the viral replication The treatment is not recommended for subclinical anogenital or mucosal human papillomavirus human papilloma virus biological in the absence of coexistent dysplasia Recent research directions are promising to provide antiviral medications anti-HPV with the characteristics aforementioned 36, However, current therapeutic strategies remain expensive due to the systems of manufacture, meaning that even if a vaccine were to be commercialized, its cost would render it less accessible to populations in developing countries, where the burden of cervical cancer is highest.
To expand the impact of therapeutic vaccines in developing countries, plant-made products are a promising technology to offer inexpensive and effective pharmaceuticals Additionally, cold-chain vaccine delivery is necessary to maintain vaccine shelf life, and contributes to the inaccessibility of vaccine products in developing countries due to poor infrastructure Vaccination at a very large scale prior the sex life debut is for now the only tool we have in the battle against HPV infections.
Still, as several candidate vaccines are tested nowdays in clinical trials, it is likely that we will benefit from a therapeutic HPV vaccine in the near future.
Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interests. Bibliografie 1. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.
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Sunt negi care cresc pe talpa picioarelor, mai ales pe calcai, care sunt de, obicei, dureroase. Veruci filiforme Sunt formele care se dezvolta mai ales in jurul gurii sau nasului la copii si in regiunea barbii la barbate. Pot apare, de asemnea pe gat, sub barbie. Veruci plane Aceste forme se dezvolta pe fata, pe brate, pe partea superioara a mainilor, sunt turtite, netede, fiind mai greu de observat. La femei apar mai frecvent pe picioare.
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